Timur, later Timūr Gurkānī, was a Turco-Mongol winner who established the Timurid Empire in and around current Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia, turning into the main leader of the Timurid line. As an undefeated commandant, he is generally viewed as one of the best military pioneers and strategists ever.

Timur's Early Life

Timur was born in the city of Samarkand in 1336. He was the only son of the Ilkhani Khan, Abul-Qasim Temur, and therefore the grandson of the Ilkhanate Sultan Sultan Miran Shah. After spending his youth in his father's harem, Timur eventually moved to be a page under his grandfather Sultan Muhammad II. Upon his father's death in 1349, Timur was given control of the Ilkhani state. He continued to serve his grandfather, and finally succeeded him as Sultan Abul-Qasim in 1359. Timur assumed control of the Ilkhanate and began his struggle for the leadership of the empire. Timur was a master of tactics and strategy and was known for his energetic attacks against his opponents, earning him the nickname "the Lame".

Consolidation of Central Asia

Timur, accompanied by his officers and personal guards, established a base in Bukhara, one of the ancient capitals of the Golden Horde. Having conquered the entire region of Transoxiana (modern-day Uzbekistan and parts of Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Timur became the undisputed master of the region. He subsequently organized two campaigns in neighboring Georgia and Dagestan, conquering the Chechens and Avars, as well as taking back the Golden Horde. Transoxiana After reaching Samarkand, the capital of Transoxiana, Timur was greeted by the Sultan of Samarkand and the Ghaznavid monarch.

Military Campaigns and Domestic Policies

Timur, an orphan who did not go to the same school as his father or grandfather, was sent to the hunting grounds to become a great warrior by a notorious Turkic slave trader. He mastered the arms and tactics of the Turks, and soon proved his valor by defeating a much larger Turkish army. Since he had shown his prowess with the axe and now that the Turks could not defeat him, they offered to make him the ruler of the greater part of their empire in exchange for military service. Timur accepted the offer and began consolidating the Empire. During his reign, he fought many wars to extend his rule, which ended with his death in 1405.

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Death and Legacy

Timur died in 1405, at the age of 61, having ruled as a ruler for 26 years. Historians have attributed a great deal of his success to his ruthlessness and tenacity, but several historians note the effects of his mental illness and physical defects. Upon his death, his last words to his general were: "Pray that my death be swift and painless." Timur died intestate and had no children. He was succeeded by his elder half-brother, Toghrul. Timur was greatly admired for his military prowess and actions, in particular, his victories in Badghis and Daryazh. The city of Samarkand, which was restored and rebuilt by Timur, was placed on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in 1996. Timur also appears in many poems and tales, most famously in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh.


What can be concluded from the history of civilizations are three things: First, the colonial period, which basically defines the period of the New World Empires, is completely misunderstood by the uninformed. Second, the third world war, has a history and a chronology that has remained a mystery for a long time. Third, there has never been a civilization that has been born with everything it needed, nor did they suffer from an avoidable catastrophe. Truly, they all started with a newborn in a box.