Algeria resistance to French Invasion

 In the year 1830 the french invaded algeria algiers was captured after a three-week campaign in which the french troops raped looted desecrated mosques and destroyed cemeteries the weak and decentralized ottoman rule in algeria was no match for the french invaders the french invasion forced the last ottoman governor of algeria known as hussein dey to flee into exile during their invasion of algeria .

 The french committed savage and brutal atrocities and their bloodthirsty mentality is summarized well in the words of lieutenant colonel lucienne who stated the following kill old men over the age of 15 take all their women and children load them on to naval vessels and send them away. In one word annihilate everything that will not crawl beneath our feet like dogs but little did the french know that the people of algeria were people that refused to be enslaved and would fight them until the end . 

Now that the ottoman troops had been defeated it was up to the local algerians to resist the french invaders the most successful local opposition immediately after the fall of algiers was led by Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif the army of Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed forced the french to retreat from constantine in 1836 however the french recaptured the city the following year .

 It was not long before the french would face an even greater and united algerian resistance the famous sufi religious leader known as Emir Abdelkader quickly gained the support of tribes throughout algeria because of his religious tolerance Abdelkader also gained the support of christians and jews in algeria eventually Abdelkader established his own state.

 By 1839 he controlled more than two-thirds of algeria his government maintained an army and bureaucracy and he collected taxes supported education undertook public works and established agricultural and manufacturing cooperatives to stimulate economic activity fought many battles across algeria against french forces although his forces were defeated by the french in 1836.

 Abdelkader negotiated a favorable peace treaty the next year however to provoke new hostilities the french deliberately broke the treaty in 1839 by occupying constantine therefore Abdelkader raised the banner of holy war once again gradually however superior french forces and manpower took their toll in order to defeat Abdelkader french reinforcements poured into algeria after 1840. The french used the strategy of starving the population by destroying its means of sustenance such as crops orchards and herds the french killed the thousands of civilians and on several occasions french troops burnt and mutilated non-combatants hiding from them in caves . Eventually after many of Abdelkader's high-ranking generals were killed Abdelkader took refuge in morocco with his ally Abdul Rahman II and launched raids into algeria .However Abdelkader eventually surrendered in 1847 Abdelkader was promised safe conduct to egypt or palestine if his followers laid down their arms and kept the peace Abdelkader accepted these conditions but was later sent to a prison in france . 

He is recognized and venerated as the first hero of algerian independence the defeat of Emir Abdelkader was a huge loss to the algerian resistance after Abdelkader was defeated. 

The french were able to expand and strengthen their algerian colony however even after the defeat of Abdelkader armed resistance to the french did not stop for example in 1871 Mohamed El-Mokrani led a rebellion against the french was the climax of 31 years of bloodshed that devastated muslim society another factor that inspired the rebellion was the 1867 famine which led to hundreds and thousands of algerians dying from starvation managed to gather a rebel army of 150 000 people initially the french army was overwhelmed by the sheer magnitude of the uprising by the end of may all of the major towns in eastern algeria were under siege in the end however there was no coordination and by the end of 1871 the revolt had ended in complete failure the repression that followed was extremely harsh for example a total of 450 000 hectares of tribal land was confiscated and the leaders of the rebellion were either executed or deported . 

Revolt was crushed thousands of europeans began settling in algeria by the year 1900 europeans held about 30 percent of the total arable land including the bulk of the most fertile land and most of the areas under irrigation by the year 1900 europeans produced more than two-thirds of the value of output in agriculture and practically all agricultural exports the french regime imposed higher taxes on muslims than on europeans . 

Forr example in 1909 muslims who made up almost 90 percent of the population only produced 20 of algeria's income they also paid 70 of direct taxes and 45 of the total taxes collected as a result of such poor economic and social conditions soon the algerian resistance re-emerged a new generation of muslim leadership emerged in algeria at the time of world war 1 and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s one of the earliest movements for political reform was the movement known as the young algerians. 

It's members were drawn from the small liberal elite of well-educated and middle-class algerians the most popular muslim leader in algeria after the war was Khalid ibn Hashim who was the grandson of the resistance leader and many algerian islamic scholars also joined the independence movement algeria's islamic reform movement took inspiration from egyptian reformers such as Muhammad Abdul and Muhammad the french rejected any kind of reform movement and when protests erupted across algeria in the 1930s the government responded with more restrictive laws governing public order and security. 

The tensions between the algerians and the french exploded on may 8 1945 violent riots broke out across algeria leading to the killing of 103 europeans these riots spread to the countryside and villagers attacked colonial settlements and government buildings french airplanes and ships targeted civilians which resulted in the deaths of around 6 000 algerian civilians. It was not long before the algerian war of independence was initiated algerians from all sections of society began to unite communists islamic groups and tribal leaders began planning a huge rebellion . In the early morning hours of November 1st 1954 the algerian liberation movement launched attacks in various parts of algeria against military installations police posts warehouses communication facilities and public utilities from their headquarters in cairo the national liberation movement broadcasted a proclamation calling on muslims in algeria to join in a national struggle for the restoration of the algerian state the algerian resistance movement attracted followers from a variety of different backgrounds even the famous algerian singers and artists . 

Such as fareed ali khalifa mustafa sahanun mustafa tumi and hasan joined the resistance movement and played a big role in motivating people to rise up and rebel against the french. Many algerian women also played a huge part in the resistance movement for example women such as zolaika uday zuhuru anasi raymond paschard and Mariam Ben were highly influential in motivating and mobilizing resistance in 1957 zolica odey who was a regional leader of the national liberation front was tortured and executed by the french . Writers , poets and intellectuals also resisted the french for example algerian writers such as Muhammad Khatib yasin and Mulud mamiri were expelled from algeria because of their support for algerian independence. In 1955 Mufti zakaria was imprisoned for supporting the independence movement during his time in prison he wrote the national anthem of algeria on 15 march 1962. Algerian writer Malud was kidnapped and assassinated by the french . 

Eventuallyy after a long and violent armed struggle the french were forced to leave Algeria on 5th july 1962 two days after . The french president had formally recognized the sovereignty of Algeria . Algeria declared itself an independent nation bringing to an end 132 years of french colonial rule foreign .