Negotiation with Vietnam 

As Vietnamization and withdrawal of troops progressed in Vietnam, negotiations stalled in Paris. Kissinger secretly held separate talks with high-level Vietnamese diplomats, but the two sides distanced themselves. The Americans proposed the mutual withdrawal of US and two North Vietnamese troops. Hanoi insisted on unconditional American withdrawal and the replacement of the US-backed Nguyen Van Thieo regime by a neutral coalition government. 

Nixon wanted to use the renewed bombing and blockade of the north to force the communist leadership, but his military and intelligence experts advised him that such actions were unlikely to have a decisive effect, and his political advisers were concerned about the impact of such actions. An American people are eager to see the war continue unabated.

As a result Nixon avoided invading North Vietnam, but he could not prevent the possibility of intervention in Cambodia, where the Western government led by General Lone Knoll overthrew Sihanouk's neutral regime in March 1970. From that time on, the Communists tried to force the new regime out of their border sanctuaries. North Vietnamese easily withstood attacks from the Cambodian army and began to support and support the Cambodian communist movement known as the Khmer Rouge. Nixon, interested in supporting Lone Knol and destroying sanctuaries, ordered a 20,000-strong U.S. command. 

Vietnam war negotiation


And South Vietnamese forces authorized to carry out large sweeps in border areas. The Allies seized large amounts of ammunition and equipment but failed to trap any of the enemy's large armies. In the United States, news of the Cambodian incursion provoked widespread protests and demonstrations. These escalated when National Guard forces opened fire on a crowd of protesters at Kent State University in Ohio on May 4, killing four students and injuring several others. On hundreds of campuses, students "went on strike." Meanwhile, Congress rejected the Gulf of Tankin proposal.

By the summer of 1970, the White House was little more than withdrawing troops as a way of ending Vietnam and war. Vietnamization is progressing smoothly, and U.S. counterterrorism experts have gone after TET to develop programs by the South Vietnamese government to root out the Viet Cong government and establish control over rural areas. Can get help. 

Viet Cong, which was severely weakened by losses in the 1968-69 attacks, has now become defensive in many areas. However, the limitations of Vietnam were soon demonstrated, codenamed Lamson 719 during a major ARVN attack in Laos in March 1971 and designed to disrupt the Chi Min Trail, resulting in heavy casualties and an unorganized return.

In the United States, mass demonstrations are now less common, but dissatisfaction with war is more widespread than ever. According to a poll, 71 percent of Americans believe that the United States made a "mistake" in sending troops to Vietnam, and 58 percent believe that war is "unethical." Dissatisfaction was particularly directed towards the selective service system, which was seen as unfairly recruiting young people from racial minorities and poor backgrounds, while at the same time allowing highly-qualified men to pursue higher education. 

The appointment was allowed to be postponed by registration. College deferrals were limited to 1971, but by then the Army was recruiting fewer soldiers each year. Nixon ended all draft calls in 1972 and the draft was canceled in 1973 in favor of the Volunteer Army.

Encouraged by his success in Laos, the Hanoi leadership launched a general offensive on the south on March 30, 1972, led by tanks and supported by artillery. 

South Vietnamese forces initially suffered a shocking defeat, but Nixon, in Operation Code Linebacker, diverted American mining north to Mine Hifang Harbor (the main gateway to Soviet maritime supplies). Did, and ordered the commissioning of hundreds of American aircraft. Against the invading forces and their supply routes. By mid-June the Easter attack on the Communists had ceased.


After their attack failed, the Hanoi leaders finally agreed to a compromise. The United States indicated in early 1971 that it would insist on withdrawing North Vietnamese troops from the South. Now Hanoi has indicated it will not insist on appointing a coalition government to replace Thiu. Based on these two concessions, Kissinger and North Vietnamese envoy Le Duck Tho secretly negotiated a complicated peace agreement in October 1972. 

However, the Saigon government terminated the negotiated peace agreement without its participation or consent and demanded significant changes. In November (after Nixon was re-elected), Kissinger returned to Paris with some 69 suggested changes to the agreement designed to satisfy Theu. The North Vietnamese reacted angrily, then with their own proposed changes. Nixon, angered by the North's inaction and eager to persuade Theo to cooperate, ordered the B - 52 bombers to attack Hanoi again. This so-called Christmas bombing was the most serious bombing in the war.

Eight days later the North Vietnamese agreed to return to Paris to sign the agreement, as happened in October. Convinced of the huge combination of US military aid and Nixon's promises and threats, Thiu reluctantly agreed to move forward. On January 27, 1973, an agreement was signed between the Communist forces of South Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the United States to end the war and restore peace in Vietnam.

 The next morning a ceasefire will take effect across North and South Vietnam, and within 60 days all US troops will be withdrawn, all US bases will be demolished and all POWs will be released. Although there is no credible evidence that American POWs were kept secret in Vietnam after the signing of the Paris Agreement (see Sidebar: Vietnam War POWs and MIA), the issue of POWs has been controversial for decades.

 An international power will keep the peace, the South Vietnamese will have the right to decide their future and the North Vietnamese forces will remain in the South but will not be strengthened. The 17th parallel dividing line will continue until the country is reunited through "peaceful means".



Fall down of South Vietnam

The last US military unit left Vietnam on March 29, 1973. By that time the Communists and South Vietnamese were already calling it a "post-war" war by journalists. Both sides are more or less certain that the other side is constantly violating the terms of the peace treaties. The United States has hosted its extensive military aid program to Saigon, but the president's ability to influence events in Vietnam has been severely curtailed. Nixon's personal position was eroded by the Watergate Revelations, which prevented Congress from pursuing any further military action in Vietnam. In the summer of 1973, Congress approved a measure banning U.S. military operations in Indochina or beyond after August 15. 

Congress took a step forward on November 7, 1973, when it overcame Nixon's veto to pass the War Powers Act. Theoretically, the president should consult Congress before committing to U.S. forces abroad.

The next year saw clear hostility: low-level warfare and casualties but a persistent war that did not define the scope of control under the control of the South Vietnamese government and the Communists. Hundreds of Vietnamese are believed to have lost their lives every day even after the fighting stopped. By the summer of 1974, Nixon had resigned in disgrace, Congress had cut military and financial aid to Vietnam by 30 percent, and the Lone Knol regime in Cambodia appeared close to defeat. 

The Thieu government, as always corrupt and inefficient, is now facing enormous difficulties with inflation, unemployment, apathy and a high desert rate in the military. December 1974 - January 1975 After easy progress in Fuk Long, northeast of Saigon, Hanoi leaders believe victory is assured.

In early March the North Vietnamese launched the first phase of what they thought was a two-year invasion to defend South Vietnam. As it happened, the southern government and army collapsed within two months. Thousands of ARVN troops retreated chaotically, first from the Central Highlands and then from Hue and Da Nong. Gerald R., Nixon's successor to the U.S. presidency. 

Ford was in vain for Congress for additional military assistance to boost Saigon's courage. But members of Congress, like many of their members, are ready to abandon a protracted and futile war. On April 21, Thiu resigned and left for Taiwan. On April 30, the South Vietnamese government unconditionally surrendered, and the NVA tank column occupied Saigon without a fight.


 The rest of the Americans fled in a series of air and seals with Vietnamese friends and colleagues. A military government was established, and on 2 July 1976, the country was officially united as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with its capital in Hanoi. Saigon was renamed Chi Minh City. The 30-year struggle for control of Vietnam is over.